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版本:3.1.1

路由

Docusaurus 的路由系统遵循单页应用的传统:一个路由对应一个组件。 在本节中,我们会首先讨论三个内容插件(文档、博客和页面)所创建的路由,然后再讨论底层的路由系统。

Routing in content plugins

Every content plugin provides a routeBasePath option. 它定义了插件创造的路径的公共前缀。 By default, the docs plugin puts its routes under /docs; the blog plugin, /blog; and the pages plugin, /. 你可以想象这样的路由结构:

所有路径都会与这个嵌套路由配置匹配,直到找到一个恰当的匹配。 For example, when given a route /docs/configuration, Docusaurus first enters the /docs branch, and then searches among the subroutes created by the docs plugin.

Changing routeBasePath can effectively alter your site's route structure. For example, in Docs-only mode, we mentioned that configuring routeBasePath: '/' for docs means that all routes that the docs plugin create would not have the /docs prefix, yet it doesn't prevent you from having more subroutes like /blog created by other plugins.

接下来,让我们看看这三个插件是如何构建它们自己的「子路由盒子」的。

Pages routing

页面路由非常简单:文件路径直接映射到 URL,没有其他方法自定义。 See the pages docs for more information.

The component used for Markdown pages is @theme/MDXPage. React 页面会被直接用作路由组件。

Blog routing

博客会创建以下路径:

  • Posts list pages: /, /page/2, /page/3...
    • The component is @theme/BlogListPage.
  • Post pages: /2021/11/21/algolia-docsearch-migration, /2021/05/12/announcing-docusaurus-two-beta...
    • 通过每个 Markdown 文件生成。
    • The routes are fully customizable through the slug front matter.
    • The component is @theme/BlogPostPage.
  • Tags list page: /tags
    • The route is customizable through the tagsBasePath option.
    • The component is @theme/BlogTagsListPage.
  • Tag pages: /tags/adoption, /tags/beta...
    • 通过每个帖子的 tags 前言定义的标签生成。
    • The routes always have base defined in tagsBasePath, but the subroutes are customizable through the tag's permalink field.
    • The component is @theme/BlogTagsPostsPage.
  • Archive page: /archive
    • The route is customizable through the archiveBasePath option.
    • The component is @theme/BlogArchivePage.

Docs routing

The docs is the only plugin that creates nested routes. At the top, it registers version paths: /, /next, /2.0.0-beta.13... which provide the version context, including the layout and sidebar. 这确保了在切换文档时,侧边栏的状态能够保持,并且你可以通过导航栏下拉菜单切换版本,同时保持在同一篇文档上。 The component used is @theme/DocPage.

The individual docs are rendered in the remaining space after the navbar, footer, sidebar, etc. have all been provided by the DocPage component. For example, this page, /zh-CN/docs/advanced/routing, is generated from the file at ./versioned_docs/version-3.1.1/advanced/routing.md. The component used is @theme/DocItem.

The doc's slug front matter customizes the last part of the route, but the base route is always defined by the plugin's routeBasePath and the version's path.

File paths and URL paths

在所有文档中,我们一直在试图明确当前讨论的是文件路径还是 URL 路径。 Content plugins usually map file paths directly to URL paths, for example, ./docs/advanced/routing.md will become /docs/advanced/routing. However, with slug, you can make URLs totally decoupled from the file structure.

When writing links in Markdown, you could either mean a file path, or a URL path, which Docusaurus would use several heuristics to determine.

  • If the path has a @site prefix, it is always an asset file path.
  • If the path has an http(s):// prefix, it is always a URL path.
  • 如果路径没有扩展名,它会被当做 URL 路径。 For example, a link [page](../plugins) on a page with URL /docs/advanced/routing will link to /docs/plugins. Docusaurus 只会在构建网站时做无效链接检测(因为这时候它知道所有的路由架构),但它不会假设有对应文件的存在。 It is exactly equivalent to writing <a href="../plugins">page</a> in a JSX file.
  • If the path has an .md(x) extension, Docusaurus would try to resolve that Markdown file to a URL, and replace the file path with a URL path.
  • If the path has any other extension, Docusaurus would treat it as an asset and bundle it.

下面这个文件目录可能能帮你可视化这种文件 → URL 的映射。 假设所有页面都没有自定义的 Slug。

A sample site structure
.
├── blog # blog plugin has routeBasePath: '/blog'
│ ├── 2019-05-28-first-blog-post.md # -> /blog/2019/05/28/first-blog-post
│ ├── 2019-05-29-long-blog-post.md # -> /blog/2019/05/29/long-blog-post
│ ├── 2021-08-01-mdx-blog-post.mdx # -> /blog/2021/08/01/mdx-blog-post
│ └── 2021-08-26-welcome
│ ├── docusaurus-plushie-banner.jpeg
│ └── index.md # -> /blog/2021/08/26/welcome
├── docs # docs plugin has routeBasePath: '/docs'; current version has base path '/'
│ ├── intro.md # -> /docs/intro
│ ├── tutorial-basics
│ │ ├── _category_.json
│ │ ├── congratulations.md # -> /docs/tutorial-basics/congratulations
│ │ └── markdown-features.mdx # -> /docs/tutorial-basics/congratulations
│ └── tutorial-extras
│ ├── _category_.json
│ ├── manage-docs-versions.md # -> /docs/tutorial-extras/manage-docs-versions
│ └── translate-your-site.md # -> /docs/tutorial-extras/translate-your-site
├── src
│ └── pages # pages plugin has routeBasePath: '/'
│ ├── index.module.css
│ ├── index.tsx # -> /
│ └── markdown-page.md # -> /markdown-page
└── versioned_docs
└── version-1.0.0 # version has base path '/1.0.0'
├── intro.md # -> /docs/1.0.0/intro
├── tutorial-basics
│ ├── _category_.json
│ ├── congratulations.md # -> /docs/1.0.0/tutorial-basics/congratulations
│ └── markdown-features.mdx # -> /docs/1.0.0/tutorial-basics/markdown-features
└── tutorial-extras
├── _category_.json
├── manage-docs-versions.md # -> /docs/1.0.0/tutorial-extras/manage-docs-versions
└── translate-your-site.md # -> /docs/1.0.0/tutorial-extras/translate-your-site

关于内容插件,就讲这么多。 让我们后退一步,总地谈谈 Docusaurus 应用中路由是怎么工作的。

Routes become HTML files

因为 Docusaurus 是一个服务端渲染的框架,所以生成的所有路由都将被渲染为静态 HTML 文件。 If you are familiar with the behavior of HTTP servers like Apache2, you will understand how this is done: when the browser sends a request to the route /docs/advanced/routing, the server interprets that as request for the HTML file /docs/advanced/routing/index.html, and returns that.

The /docs/advanced/routing route can correspond to either /docs/advanced/routing/index.html or /docs/advanced/routing.html. 有些网站托管服务会通过 URL 是否在末尾有一个斜杠对它们加以区分,然后既可能接受另一种 URL,也可能不接受。 Read more in the trailing slash guide.

比如,上面的文件目录的会有以下构建输出(略去其他资源和 JS 文件):

Output of the above workspace
build
├── 404.html # /404/
├── blog
│ ├── archive
│ │ └── index.html # /blog/archive/
│ ├── first-blog-post
│ │ └── index.html # /blog/first-blog-post/
│ ├── index.html # /blog/
│ ├── long-blog-post
│ │ └── index.html # /blog/long-blog-post/
│ ├── mdx-blog-post
│ │ └── index.html # /blog/mdx-blog-post/
│ ├── tags
│ │ ├── docusaurus
│ │ │ └── index.html # /blog/tags/docusaurus/
│ │ ├── hola
│ │ │ └── index.html # /blog/tags/hola/
│ │ └── index.html # /blog/tags/
│ └── welcome
│ └── index.html # /blog/welcome/
├── docs
│ ├── 1.0.0
│ │ ├── intro
│ │ │ └── index.html # /docs/1.0.0/intro/
│ │ ├── tutorial-basics
│ │ │ ├── congratulations
│ │ │ │ └── index.html # /docs/1.0.0/tutorial-basics/congratulations/
│ │ │ └── markdown-features
│ │ │ └── index.html # /docs/1.0.0/tutorial-basics/markdown-features/
│ │ └── tutorial-extras
│ │ ├── manage-docs-versions
│ │ │ └── index.html # /docs/1.0.0/tutorial-extras/manage-docs-versions/
│ │ └── translate-your-site
│ │ └── index.html # /docs/1.0.0/tutorial-extras/translate-your-site/
│ ├── intro
│ │ └── index.html # /docs/1.0.0/intro/
│ ├── tutorial-basics
│ │ ├── congratulations
│ │ │ └── index.html # /docs/tutorial-basics/congratulations/
│ │ └── markdown-features
│ │ └── index.html # /docs/tutorial-basics/markdown-features/
│ └── tutorial-extras
│ ├── manage-docs-versions
│ │ └── index.html # /docs/tutorial-extras/manage-docs-versions/
│ └── translate-your-site
│ └── index.html # /docs/tutorial-extras/translate-your-site/
├── index.html # /
└── markdown-page
└── index.html # /markdown-page/

If trailingSlash is set to false, the build would emit intro.html instead of intro/index.html.

All HTML files will reference its JS assets using absolute URLs, so in order for the correct assets to be located, you have to configure the baseUrl field. Note that baseUrl doesn't affect the emitted bundle's file structure: the base URL is one level above the Docusaurus routing system. You can see the aggregate of url and baseUrl as the actual location of your Docusaurus site.

For example, the emitted HTML would contain links like <link rel="preload" href="/assets/js/runtime~main.7ed5108a.js" as="script">. Because absolute URLs are resolved from the host, if the bundle placed under the path https://example.com/base/, the link will point to https://example.com/assets/js/runtime~main.7ed5108a.js, which is, well, non-existent. By specifying /base/ as base URL, the link will correctly point to /base/assets/js/runtime~main.7ed5108a.js.

本地化的网站会将语言名作为 base URL 的一部分。 For example, https://docusaurus.io/zh-CN/docs/advanced/routing/ has base URL /zh-CN/.

Generating and accessing routes

The addRoute lifecycle action is used to generate routes. 它会在路由树上注册一条路由,其中包含一个路径、一个组件,以及组件所需要的 props。 The props and the component are both provided as paths for the bundler to require, because as explained in the architecture overview, server and client only communicate through temp files.

All routes are aggregated in .docusaurus/routes.js, which you can view with the debug plugin's routes panel.

On the client side, we offer @docusaurus/router to access the page's route. @docusaurus/router is a re-export of the react-router-dom package. For example, you can use useLocation to get the current page's location, and useHistory to access the history object. (它们与浏览器的 API 不大一样,虽然功能类似。 要了解特定的 API,请参考 React Router 的文档。)

This API is SSR safe, as opposed to the browser-only window.location.

myComponent.js
import React from 'react';
import {useLocation} from '@docusaurus/router';

export function PageRoute() {
// React router provides the current component's route, even in SSR
const location = useLocation();
return (
<span>
We are currently on <code>{location.pathname}</code>
</span>
);
}
http://localhost:3000
We are currently on /zh-CN/docs/advanced/routing

Escaping from SPA redirects

Docusaurus builds a single-page application, where route transitions are done through the history.push() method of React router. 这个操作在客户端进行。 然而,这种路由转换能发生的前提条件是我们的路由器知道目标 URL 的存在。 否则,路由器会捕捉这个路径,然后显示 404。

If you put some HTML pages under the static folder, they will be copied to the build output and therefore become accessible as part of your website, yet it's not part of the Docusaurus route system. We provide a pathname:// protocol that allows you to redirect to another part of your domain in a non-SPA fashion, as if this route is an external link.

- [pathname:///pure-html](pathname:///pure-html)
http://localhost:3000

The pathname:// protocol is useful for referencing any content in the static folder. For example, Docusaurus would convert all Markdown static assets to require() calls. You can use pathname:// to keep it a regular link instead of being hashed by Webpack.

my-doc.md
![static 文件夹里的图片](pathname:///img/docusaurus.png)

[static 文件夹里的其他资源](pathname:///files/asset.pdf)

Docusaurus will only strip the pathname:// prefix without processing the content.